(b) improving the ability to adapt to the negative effects of climate change and promoting resilience to climate change and the development of low greenhouse gas emissions so as not to endanger food production; 1992: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development is held in Rio de Janeiro. It is the result, among other things, of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (“FCCC” or “UNFCCC”) The protocol left unresolved several issues that could be decided later by the sixth UNFCCC Cop6 conference, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in The Hague at the end of 2000, but was unable to reach an agreement , given that the European Union (which advocates stricter implementation) and the United States, Canada, Japan and Australia (which wanted the agreement to be less ambitious and more flexible). Since May 2013, 191 countries and a regional economic organization (EC) have ratified the agreement, representing more than 61.6% of schedule I emissions in 1990.  One of the 191 ratifying countries, Canada, has relinquished the protocol. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  Reports on national communications are often several hundred pages long and cover a country`s actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its vulnerabilities and effects of climate change.  National communications are established in accordance with guidelines adopted by the UNFCCC Conference of Parties. Contributions (planned) at the national level (NDC), which form the basis of the Paris Agreement, are shorter and less detailed, but also follow a standard structure and are subject to technical review by experts. President Obama was able to formally enshrine the United States in the agreement through executive measures because he did not impose new legal obligations on the country. The United States already has a number of instruments on the books, under laws already passed by Congress to reduce carbon pollution. The country officially joined the agreement in September 2016, after submitting its request for participation.
The Paris Agreement was only able to enter into force after the formal accession of at least 55 nations representing at least 55% of global emissions. This happened on October 5, 2016 and the agreement came into force 30 days later, on November 4, 2016. Japan`s national policy to meet its Kyoto target includes the purchase of GIS-sold AAA.  In 2010, Japanese and Japanese companies were the main customers of AAUs. :53 In the international carbon market, AAE trade is only a small part of the total market value. 9 In 2010, 97% of trade on the international carbon market was fuelled by the European Union`s Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS). :9 Companies regulated under the EU ETS are not able to use AAEs to meet their emission limits.  The United States, the second largest emitter in the world, is the only country to withdraw from the agreement, a step by President Donald J.